I am an assistant professor in the Department of Human Oncology, where I apply my skills as a physicist and research scientist to the study of physics in medicine and daily clinical practice. I assess the available literature, test and safely implement new modalities and provide quality assurance of existing techniques and equipment. I have experience researching small field dosimetry, novel treatment planning techniques on volumetric arc therapy (VMAT) and Tomotherapy machines and CT/MRI-based brachytherapy planning. Currently, I oversee quality improvement of dosimetric planning techniques for the UW Hospitals and Clinics dosimetry group and streamlining of planning workflows.
Resident, University of Wisconsin–Madison, Medical Physics (2012)
PhD, University of Wisconsin–Madison, Physics (2006)
MS, University of Wisconsin–Madison, Medical Physics (2010)
BA, University of Montana–Missoula, Physics (1999)
Assistant Professor, Human Oncology (2012)
Dr. Adam Bayliss tests and safely implements new modalities and provides quality assurance of existing techniques and equipment. He has experience researching small field dosimetry, novel treatment planning techniques on volumetric arc therapy (VMAT) and Tomotherapy machines and CT/MRI-based brachytherapy planning.
Pulsed Reduced Dose Rate for Reirradiation of Recurrent Breast Cancer Practical radiation oncology
Burr AR, Robins HI, Bayliss RA, Howard SP
2020 Mar-Apr;10(2):e61-e70. doi: 10.1016/j.prro.2019.09.004. Epub 2019 Sep 14.
PURPOSE: Locoregionally recurrent breast cancer within a previously irradiated field requires weighing the benefits of reirradiation against the increased rates of toxicity. Here we evaluate the outcomes of patients treated with pulsed reduced dose rate (PRDR) radiation therapy with concurrent low-dose capecitabine as a method to increase the therapeutic ratio of re-treatment.
METHODS AND MATERIALS: Patients treated from November 2000 to June 1, 2018 with PRDR radiation therapy at University of Wisconsin were identified. Patients were re-treated to a median dose of 54 Gy (range, 37.5-66 Gy) using PRDR radiation therapy, delivering radiation at an apparent dose rate of 6.67 cGy/min to allow for increased sublethal damage repair of normal tissues. The median cumulative dose was 109.8 Gy. Twenty-two patients were treated with concurrent capecitabine, most frequently at 500 mg twice per day. The Kaplan-Meier method was used for survival analysis, and Cox regression analysis was used for univariate and multivariate analysis.
RESULTS: Forty-three patients were identified who underwent reirradiation for locoregionally recurrent invasive breast cancer, with a median follow-up of 20.5 months. Twenty-four patients had gross disease. Nineteen patients had simultaneous metastatic disease. The complete response rate was 83.3% in treated patients with gross disease. Locoregional recurrence-free survival was 81.3% and 73.8% for all patients at 1 and 2 years, respectively. Overall survival for patients with localized disease was 95.7% at 1 year and 91.1% at 2 years. The rate of acute grade 3 radiation dermatitis was 25.6% with no other acute grade 3 toxicities. Grade 3 late toxicity occurred in 18.6% of patients.
CONCLUSIONS: PRDR radiation therapy with capecitabine was a well-tolerated and effective method for treating patients with recurrent breast cancer. Prospective studies are necessary to compare side effects and efficacy with conventional dose rate reirradiation and to evaluate the potential role for capecitabine in the recurrent setting.
PMID:31526900 | DOI:10.1016/j.prro.2019.09.004
View details for PubMedID 31526900
Large volume re-irradiation for recurrent meningioma with pulsed reduced dose rate radiotherapy Journal of neuro-oncology
Witt JS, Musunuru HB, Bayliss RA, Howard SP
2019 Jan;141(1):103-109. doi: 10.1007/s11060-018-03011-z. Epub 2018 Nov 3.
PURPOSE: Meningiomas comprise up to 30% of primary brain tumors. The majority of meningioma patients enjoy high rates of control after conventional therapies. However, patients with recurrent disease previously treated with radiotherapy have few options for salvage treatment, and systemic interventions have proven largely ineffective. The aim of this study was to determine whether pulsed reduced dose rate radiotherapy (PRDR) was well tolerated in a small cohort of patients with recurrent meningioma.
METHODS: We retrospectively identified eight patients with recurrent intracranial meningioma treated with PRDR from April 2013 to August of 2017 at a single institution. All patients had radiographic and/or pathologic evidence of progression prior to treatment and had previously completed conventional radiotherapy. Acute and late toxicities were graded based on CTCAE 4.0.
RESULTS: Of eight patients, six had histologically confirmed atypical meningiomas upon recurrence. All patients were re-treated with IMRT at an apparent dose rate of 0.0667 Gy/min. Median time between radiation courses was 7.7 years. Median PRDR dose was 54 Gy in 27 fractions to a median volume of 261.6 cm3. Two patients (25%) had in field failure with a median follow up of 23.3 months. PFS at 6 months was 100%. All but one (87.5%) patient was still alive at last follow up. No patient experienced grade ≥ 2 acute or late toxicities.
CONCLUSIONS: PRDR re-irradiation was well tolerated and appeared effective for a small cohort of patients with recurrent meningioma previously treated with radiotherapy. A phase II trial to assess this prospectively is in development.
PMID:30392090 | DOI:10.1007/s11060-018-03011-z
View details for PubMedID 30392090
Radiation treatment planning and delivery strategies for a pregnant brain tumor patient Journal of applied clinical medical physics
Labby ZE, Barraclough B, Bayliss RA, Besemer AE, Dunkerley AP, Howard SP
2018 Sep;19(5):368-374. doi: 10.1002/acm2.12262. Epub 2018 Jul 30.
The management of a pregnant patient in radiation oncology is an infrequent event requiring careful consideration by both the physician and physicist. The aim of this manuscript was to highlight treatment planning techniques and detail measurements of fetal dose for a pregnant patient recently requiring treatment for a brain cancer. A 27-year-old woman was treated during gestational weeks 19-25 for a resected grade 3 astrocytoma to 50.4 Gy in 28 fractions, followed by an additional 9 Gy boost in five fractions. Four potential plans were developed for the patient: a 6 MV 3D-conformal treatment plan with enhanced dynamic wedges, a 6 MV step-and-shoot (SnS) intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plan, an unflattened 6 MV SnS IMRT plan, and an Accuray TomoTherapy HDA helical IMRT treatment plan. All treatment plans used strategies to reduce peripheral dose. Fetal dose was estimated for each treatment plan using available literature references, and measurements were made using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) and an ionization chamber with an anthropomorphic phantom. TLD measurements from a full-course radiation delivery ranged from 1.0 to 1.6 cGy for the 3D-conformal treatment plan, from 1.0 to 1.5 cGy for the 6 MV SnS IMRT plan, from 0.6 to 1.0 cGy for the unflattened 6 MV SnS IMRT plan, and from 1.9 to 2.6 cGy for the TomoTherapy treatment plan. The unflattened 6 MV SnS IMRT treatment plan was selected for treatment for this particular patient, though the fetal doses from all treatment plans were deemed acceptable. The cumulative dose to the patient's unshielded fetus is estimated to be 1.0 cGy at most. The planning technique and distance between the treatment target and fetus both contributed to this relatively low fetal dose. Relevant treatment planning strategies and treatment delivery considerations are discussed to aid radiation oncologists and medical physicists in the management of pregnant patients.
PMID:30062720 | PMC:PMC6123144 | DOI:10.1002/acm2.12262
View details for PubMedID 30062720
Dosimetric Comparison of Real-Time MRI-Guided Tri-Cobalt-60 Versus Linear Accelerator-Based Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy Lung Cancer Plans Technology in cancer research & treatment
Wojcieszynski AP, Hill PM, Rosenberg SA, Hullett CR, Labby ZE, Paliwal B, Geurts MW, Bayliss RA, Bayouth JE, Harari PM, Bassetti MF, Baschnagel AM
2017 Jun;16(3):366-372. doi: 10.1177/1533034617691407. Epub 2017 Feb 7.
PURPOSE: Magnetic resonance imaging-guided radiation therapy has entered clinical practice at several major treatment centers. Treatment of early-stage non-small cell lung cancer with stereotactic body radiation therapy is one potential application of this modality, as some form of respiratory motion management is important to address. We hypothesize that magnetic resonance imaging-guided tri-cobalt-60 radiation therapy can be used to generate clinically acceptable stereotactic body radiation therapy treatment plans. Here, we report on a dosimetric comparison between magnetic resonance imaging-guided radiation therapy plans and internal target volume-based plans utilizing volumetric-modulated arc therapy.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ten patients with early-stage non-small cell lung cancer who underwent radiation therapy planning and treatment were studied. Following 4-dimensional computed tomography, patient images were used to generate clinically deliverable plans. For volumetric-modulated arc therapy plans, the planning tumor volume was defined as an internal target volume + 0.5 cm. For magnetic resonance imaging-guided plans, a single mid-inspiratory cycle was used to define a gross tumor volume, then expanded 0.3 cm to the planning tumor volume. Treatment plan parameters were compared.
RESULTS: Planning tumor volumes trended larger for volumetric-modulated arc therapy-based plans, with a mean planning tumor volume of 47.4 mL versus 24.8 mL for magnetic resonance imaging-guided plans ( P = .08). Clinically acceptable plans were achievable via both methods, with bilateral lung V20, 3.9% versus 4.8% ( P = .62). The volume of chest wall receiving greater than 30 Gy was also similar, 22.1 versus 19.8 mL ( P = .78), as were all other parameters commonly used for lung stereotactic body radiation therapy. The ratio of the 50% isodose volume to planning tumor volume was lower in volumetric-modulated arc therapy plans, 4.19 versus 10.0 ( P < .001). Heterogeneity index was comparable between plans, 1.25 versus 1.25 ( P = .98).
CONCLUSION: Magnetic resonance imaging-guided tri-cobalt-60 radiation therapy is capable of delivering lung high-quality stereotactic body radiation therapy plans that are clinically acceptable as compared to volumetric-modulated arc therapy-based plans. Real-time magnetic resonance imaging provides the unique capacity to directly observe tumor motion during treatment for purposes of motion management.
PMID:28168936 | PMC:PMC5616053 | DOI:10.1177/1533034617691407
View details for PubMedID 28168936
Gadoxetate for direct tumor therapy and tracking with real-time MRI-guided stereotactic body radiation therapy of the liver Radiotherapy and oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
Wojcieszynski AP, Rosenberg SA, Brower JV, Hullett CR, Geurts MW, Labby ZE, Hill PM, Bayliss RA, Paliwal B, Bayouth JE, Harari PM, Bassetti MF
2016 Feb;118(2):416-8. doi: 10.1016/j.radonc.2015.10.024. Epub 2015 Nov 25.
SBRT is increasingly utilized in liver tumor treatment. MRI-guided RT allows for real-time MRI tracking during therapy. Liver tumors are often poorly visualized and most contrast agents are transient. Gadoxetate may allow for sustained tumor visualization. Here, we report on the first use of gadoxetate during real-time MRI-guided SBRT.
PMID:26627702 | DOI:10.1016/j.radonc.2015.10.024
View details for PubMedID 26627702
Impact of Node Negative Target Volume Delineation on Contralateral Parotid Gland Dose Sparing Using IMRT in Head and Neck Cancer Technology in cancer research & treatment
Magnuson WJ, Urban E, Bayliss RA, Harari PM
2015 Jun;14(3):315-9. doi: 10.1177/1533034614547456. Epub 2014 Sep 10.
There is considerable practice variation in treatment of the node negative (N0) contralateral neck in patients with head and neck cancer. In this study, we examined the impact of N0 neck target delineation volume on radiation dose to the contralateral parotid gland. Following institutional review board approval, 12 patients with head and neck cancer were studied. All had indications for treatment of the N0 neck, such as midline base of tongue or soft palate extension or advanced ipsilateral nodal disease. The N0 neck volumes were created using the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group head and neck contouring atlas. The physician-drawn N0 neck clinical target volume (CTV) was expanded by 25% to 200% to generate volume variation, followed by a 3-mm planning target volume (PTV) expansion. Surrounding organs at risk were contoured and complete intensity-modulated radiation therapy plans were generated for each N0 volume expansion. The median N0 target volume drawn by the radiation oncologist measured 93 cm(3) (range 71-145). Volumetric expansion of the N0 CTV by 25% to 200% increased the resultant mean dose to the contralateral parotid gland by 1.4 to 8.5 Gray (Gy). For example, a 4.1-mm increase in the N0 neck CTV translated to a 2.0-Gy dose increase to the parotid, 7.4 mm to a 4.5 Gy dose increase, and 12.5 mm to an 8.5 Gy dose increase, respectively. The treatment volume designated for the N0 neck has profound impact on resultant dose to the contralateral parotid gland. Variations of up to 15 mm are routine across physicians in target contouring, reflecting individual preference and training expertise. Depending on the availability of immobilization and image guidance techniques, experts commonly recommend 3 to 10 mm margin expansions to generate the PTV. Careful attention to the original volume of the N0 neck CTV, as well as expansion margins, is important in achieving effective contralateral gland sparing to reduce the resultant xerostomia and dysguesia that may ensue after radiotherapy.
PMID:25782188 | DOI:10.1177/1533034614547456
View details for PubMedID 25782188
Selective omission of level V nodal coverage for patients with oropharyngeal cancer: Clinical validation of intensity-modulated radiotherapy experience and dosimetric significance Head & neck
Mohindra P, Urban E, Pagan JD, Geye HM, Patel VB, Bayliss AA, Bender ET, Harari PM
2016 Apr;38(4):499-505. doi: 10.1002/hed.23924. Epub 2015 Jun 16.
BACKGROUND: We sought to validate the consensus recommendation and assess dosimetric significance of selective omission of nodal level V from intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) clinical target volume (CTV) for oropharyngeal cancer.
METHODS: IMRT plans and clinical outcomes for 112 patients with oropharyngeal cancer (nodal classification N0-N2b) were analyzed for coverage of ipsilateral and contralateral nodal level V. Additionally, new IMRT plans were generated in 6 randomly selected patients to assess its dosimetric impact.
RESULTS: With median follow-up of 3.4 years, there were no failures identified in nodal level V with or without nodal level V omission. Upon dosimetric evaluation, significant reduction in integral dose, V10 Gy , V20 Gy , V30 Gy , V40 Gy , and V50 Gy was observed by excluding unilateral and bilateral level V from the CTV.
CONCLUSION: We clinically validate the consensus recommendation for selective omission of level V nodal coverage in IMRT planning of patients with oropharyngeal cancer and demonstrate significant dosimetric advantages.
PMID:25445257 | DOI:10.1002/hed.23924
View details for PubMedID 25445257
Improvements in dose calculation accuracy for small off-axis targets in high dose per fraction tomotherapy Medical physics
Hardcastle N, Bayliss A, Wong HD, Rosenfeld AB, Tomé WA
2012 Aug;39(8):4788-94. doi: 10.1118/1.4736811.
PURPOSE: A recent field safety notice from TomoTherapy detailed the underdosing of small, off-axis targets when receiving high doses per fraction. This is due to angular undersampling in the dose calculation gantry angles. This study evaluates a correction method to reduce the underdosing, to be implemented in the current version (v4.1) of the TomoTherapy treatment planning software.
METHODS: The correction method, termed "Super Sampling" involved the tripling of the number of gantry angles from which the dose is calculated during optimization and dose calculation. Radiochromic film was used to measure the dose to small targets at various off-axis distances receiving a minimum of 21 Gy in one fraction. Measurements were also performed for single small targets at the center of the Lucy phantom, using radiochromic film and the dose magnifying glass (DMG).
RESULTS: Without super sampling, the peak dose deficit increased from 0% to 18% for a 10 mm target and 0% to 30% for a 5 mm target as off-axis target distances increased from 0 to 16.5 cm. When super sampling was turned on, the dose deficit trend was removed and all peak doses were within 5% of the planned dose. For measurements in the Lucy phantom at 9.7 cm off-axis, the positional and dose magnitude accuracy using super sampling was verified using radiochromic film and the DMG.
CONCLUSIONS: A correction method implemented in the TomoTherapy treatment planning system which triples the angular sampling of the gantry angles used during optimization and dose calculation removes the underdosing for targets as small as 5 mm diameter, up to 16.5 cm off-axis receiving up to 21 Gy.
PMID:22894403 | DOI:10.1118/1.4736811
View details for PubMedID 22894403
High dose per fraction dosimetry of small fields with gafchromic EBT2 film Medical physics
Hardcastle N, Basavatia A, Bayliss A, Tomé WA
2011 Jul;38(7):4081-5. doi: 10.1118/1.3597834.
PURPOSE: Small field dosimetry is prone to uncertainties due to the lack of electronic equilibrium and the use of the correct detector size relative to the field size measured. It also exhibits higher sensitivity to setup errors as well as large variation in output with field size and shape. Radiochromic film is an attractive method for reference dosimetry in small fields due to its ability to provide 2D dose measurements while having minimal impact on the dose distribution. Gafchromic EBT2 has a dose range of up to 40 Gy; therefore, it could potentially be useful for high dose reference dosimetry with high spatial resolution. This is a requirement in stereotactic radiosurgery deliveries, which deliver high doses per fraction to small targets.
METHODS: Targets of 4 mm and 12 mm diameters were treated to a minimum peripheral dose of 21 Gy prescribed to 80% of the maximum dose in one fraction. Target doses were measured with EBT2 film (both targets) and an ion chamber (12 mm target only). Measured doses were compared with planned dose distributions using profiles through the target and minimum peripheral dose coverage.
RESULTS: The measured target doses and isodose coverage agreed with the planned dose within +/-1 standard deviation of three measurements, which were 2.13% and 2.5% for the 4 mm and 12 mm targets, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: EBT2 film is a feasible dosimeter for high dose per fraction reference 2D dosimetry.
PMID:21859007 | DOI:10.1118/1.3597834
View details for PubMedID 21859007
Adam Bayliss, PhD600 Highland Avenue Madison,
Madison, WI 53792