Portrait of Jordan Slagowski

Jordan Slagowski, PhD, DABR

Assistant Professor (CHS)

Department of Human Oncology


I am an assistant professor and board-certified medical physicist in the Department of Human Oncology at the University of Wisconsin – Madison. My clinical sub-specialty is brachytherapy. I also provide general physics support across the Department.  I am active in several educational areas which include serving as the Associate Director of the Medical Physics Residency program, teaching a graduate course on advanced brachytherapy physics in the Department of Medical Physics, and presenting several lectures per year to MD residents and radiation therapy students.

In addition to my clinical and education roles, I am actively researching techniques to integrate advanced imaging for biology guided radiotherapy. This includes work to develop a system to perform small animal intensity modulated radiation therapy that will improve dose conformity and enable dose painting studies (e.g., hypoxia) in a preclinical setting. Similarly, I am working to develop an optimization framework to target focal lesions in HDR brachytherapy for prostate cancer.


Residency, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Radiation Oncology Physics (2019)

PhD, University of Wisconsin–Madison, Medical Physics (2017)

MS, University of Wisconsin–Madison, Medical Physics (2014)

BS, University of Wisconsin–Madison, Nuclear Engineering (2010)

Academic Appointments

Associate Director, Medical Physics Residency, Human Oncology (2022-present)

Assistant Professor, Human Oncology (2022)

Assistant Professor, Radiation and Cellular Oncology, University of Chicago (2019-2021)

Selected Honors and Awards

Kurt Rossman Award for Excellence in Teaching (2021)

John R. Cameron Young Investigator competition third place (2017)

ASTRO Annual Meeting Resident Poster Viewing Recognition Award (2018)

Recipient of an NVIDIA GPU grant for a CBCT focused IGRT project (2018)

Franca T. Kuchnir Award for Outstanding Teacher of The Year, University of Chicago Medical Physics Residency Program (2021)

Boards, Advisory Committees and Professional Organizations

Member of AAPM Working Group on Conformal Small Animal Irradiation Devices

Reviewer – Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics (2019-pres.)

Reviewer – IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering (2020-pres.)

Reviewer – Medical Physics (2020-pres.)

Reviewer – Frontiers of Oncology (2021-pres.)

  • Dosimetric feasibility of brain stereotactic radiosurgery with a 0.35 T MRI-guided linac and comparison vs a C-arm-mounted linac Medical physics
    Slagowski JM, Redler G, Malin MJ, Cammin J, Lobb EC, Lee BH, Sethi A, Roeske JC, Flores-Martinez E, Stevens T, Yenice KM, Green O, Mutic S, Aydogan B
    2020 Nov;47(11):5455-5466. doi: 10.1002/mp.14503. Epub 2020 Oct 18.
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      PURPOSE: MRI is the gold-standard imaging modality for brain tumor diagnosis and delineation. The purpose of this work was to investigate the feasibility of performing brain stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) with a 0.35 T MRI-guided linear accelerator (MRL) equipped with a double-focused multileaf collimator (MLC). Dosimetric comparisons were made vs a conventional C-arm-mounted linac with a high-definition MLC.

      METHODS: The quality of MRL single-isocenter brain SRS treatment plans was evaluated as a function of target size for a series of spherical targets with diameters from 0.6 cm to 2.5 cm in an anthropomorphic head phantom and six brain metastases (max linear dimension = 0.7-1.9 cm) previously treated at our clinic on a conventional linac. Each target was prescribed 20 Gy to 99% of the target volume. Step-and-shoot IMRT plans were generated for the MRL using 11 static coplanar beams equally spaced over 360° about an isocenter placed at the center of the target. Couch and collimator angles are fixed for the MRL. Two MRL planning strategies (VR1 and VR2) were investigated. VR1 minimized the 12 Gy isodose volume while constraining the maximum point dose to be within ±1 Gy of 25 Gy which corresponded to normalization to an 80% isodose volume. VR2 minimized the 12 Gy isodose volume without the maximum dose constraint. For the conventional linac, the TB1 method followed the same strategy as VR1 while TB2 used five noncoplanar dynamic conformal arcs. Plan quality was evaluated in terms of conformity index (CI), conformity/gradient index (CGI), homogeneity index (HI), and volume of normal brain receiving ≥12 Gy (V12Gy ). Quality assurance measurements were performed with Gafchromic EBT-XD film following an absolute dose calibration protocol.

      RESULTS: For the phantom study, the CI of MRL plans was not significantly different compared to a conventional linac (P > 0.05). The use of dynamic conformal arcs and noncoplanar beams with a conventional linac spared significantly more normal brain (P = 0.027) and maximized the CGI, as expected. The mean CGI was 95.9 ± 4.5 for TB2 vs 86.6 ± 3.7 (VR1), 88.2 ± 4.8 (VR2), and 88.5 ± 5.9 (TB1). Each method satisfied a normal brain V12Gy ≤ 10.0 cm3 planning goal for targets with diameter ≤2.25 cm. The mean V12Gy was 3.1 cm3 for TB2 vs 5.5 cm3 , 5.0 cm3 and 4.3 cm3 , for VR1, VR2, and TB1, respectively. For a 2.5-cm diameter target, only TB2 met the V12Gy planning objective. The MRL clinical brain plans were deemed acceptable for patient treatment. The normal brain V12Gy was ≤6.0 cm3 for all clinical targets (maximum target volume = 3.51 cm3 ). CI and CGI ranged from 1.12-1.65 and 81.2-88.3, respectively. Gamma analysis pass rates (3%/1mm criteria) exceeded 97.6% for six clinical targets planned and delivered on the MRL. The mean measured vs computed absolute dose difference was -0.1%.

      CONCLUSIONS: The MRL system can produce clinically acceptable brain SRS plans for spherical lesions with diameter ≤2.25 cm. Large lesions (>2.25 cm) should be treated with a linac capable of delivering noncoplanar beams.

      PMID:32996591 | DOI:10.1002/mp.14503

      View details for PubMedID 32996591
  • A modular phantom and software to characterize 3D geometric distortion in MRI Physics in medicine and biology
    Slagowski JM, Ding Y, Aima M, Wen Z, Fuller CD, Chung C, Debnam JM, Hwang K, Kadbi M, Szklaruk J, Wang J
    2020 Sep 28;65(19):195008. doi: 10.1088/1361-6560/ab9c64.
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      Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) offers outstanding soft tissue contrast that may reduce uncertainties in target and organ-at-risk delineation and enable online adaptive image-guided treatment. Spatial distortions resulting from non-linearities in the gradient fields and non-uniformity in the main magnetic field must be accounted for across the imaging field-of-view to prevent systematic errors during treatment delivery. This work presents a modular phantom and software application to characterize geometric distortion (GD) within the large field-of-view MRI images required for radiation therapy simulation. The modular phantom is assembled from a series of rectangular foam blocks containing high-contrast fiducial markers in a known configuration. The modular phantom design facilitates transportation of the phantom between different MR scanners and MR-guided linear accelerators and allows the phantom to be adapted to fit different sized bores or coils. The phantom was evaluated using a 1.5 T MR-guided linear accelerator (MR-Linac) and 1.5 T and 3.0 T diagnostic scanners. Performance was assessed by varying acquisition parameters to induce image distortions in a known manner. Imaging was performed using T1 and T2 weighted pulse sequences with 2D and 3D distortion correction algorithms and the receiver bandwidth (BW) varied as 250-815 Hz pixel-1. Phantom set-up reproducibility was evaluated across independent set-ups. The software was validated by comparison with a non-modular phantom. Average geometric distortion was 0.94 ± 0.58 mm for the MR-Linac, 0.90 ± 0.53 mm for the 1.5 T scanner, and 1.15 ± 0.62 mm for the 3.0 T scanner, for a 400 mm diameter volume-of-interest. GD increased, as expected, with decreasing BW, and with the 2D versus 3D correction algorithm. Differences in GD attributed to phantom set-up were 0.13 mm or less. Differences in GD for the two software applications were less than 0.07 mm. A novel modular phantom was developed to evaluate distortions in MR images for radiation therapy applications.

      PMID:32531763 | PMC:PMC7772054 | DOI:10.1088/1361-6560/ab9c64

      View details for PubMedID 32531763
  • Selection of single-isocenter for multiple-target stereotactic brain radiosurgery to minimize total margin volume Physics in medicine and biology
    Slagowski JM, Wen Z
    2020 Sep 16;65(18):185012. doi: 10.1088/1361-6560/ab9703.
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      Treating multiple brain metastases with a single isocenter improves efficiency but requires margins to account for rotation induced shifts that increase with target-to-isocenter distance. A method to select the single isocenter position that minimizes the total volume of normal tissue treated during multi-target stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is presented. A statistical framework was developed to quantify the impact of uncertainties on planning target volumes (PTV). Translational and rotational shifts were modeled with independent, zero mean, Gaussian distributions in three dimensions added in quadrature. The standard deviations of errors were varied from 0.5-2.0 mm and 0.5°-2.0°. The volume of normal tissue treated due to margin expansions required to maintain a 95% probability of target coverage was computed. Tumors were modeled as 4-40 mm diameter spheres. Target separation distance was varied from 40-100 mm for two- and three-lesion scenarios. The percent increase in PTV was determined relative to an isocenter at the geometric centroid of the targets for the optimal isocenter that minimized the total normal tissue treated, and isocenters at the center-of-mass (COM) and center-of-surface-area (CSA). For two targets, isocenter placement at the optimal location, COM, and CSA, reduced the total margin versus an isocenter at midline up to 17.8%, 17.7%, and 17.8%, respectively, for 0.5 mm and 0.5° errors. For three targets, optimal isocenter placement reduced the margin volume up to 21%, 19%, and 14%, for uncertainties of (0.5 mm, 0.5°), (1.0 mm, 1.0°), and (2.0 mm, 2.0°), respectively. COM and CSA provide useful approximations to select the optimal isocenter for multi-target single-isocenter SRS for two or three targets with maximum dimensions ⩽ 40 mm and separation distances ⩽ 100 mm when uncertainties are ⩽ 1.0 mm and ⩽ 1.0°. CSA provides a more accurate approximation than COM. Optimal treatment isocenter selection for multiple targets of large size differences can significantly reduce total margin volume.

      PMID:32460254 | DOI:10.1088/1361-6560/ab9703

      View details for PubMedID 32460254
  • Evaluation of the Visibility and Artifacts of 11 Common Fiducial Markers for Image Guided Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy in the Abdomen Practical radiation oncology
    Slagowski JM, Colbert LE, Cazacu IM, Singh BS, Martin R, Koay EJ, Taniguchi CM, Koong AC, Bhutani MS, Herman JM, Beddar S
    2020 Nov-Dec;10(6):434-442. doi: 10.1016/j.prro.2020.01.007. Epub 2020 Jan 24.
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      PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to quantitatively evaluate the visibility and artifacts of commercially available fiducial markers to optimize their selection for image guided stereotactic body radiation therapy.

      METHODS AND MATERIALS: From 6 different vendors, we selected 11 fiducials commonly used in image guided radiation therapy. The fiducials varied in material composition (e.g., gold, platinum, carbon), shape (e.g., cylindrical, notched/linear, coiled, ball-like, step), and size measured in terms of diameter (0.28-1.0 mm) and length (3.0-20.0 mm). Each fiducial was centered in 4-mm bolus within a 13-cm-thick water-equivalent phantom. Fiducials were imaged with the use of a simulation computed tomography (CT) scanner, a CT-on-rails system, and an onboard cone beam CT system. Acquisition parameters were set according to clinical protocols. Visibility was assessed in terms of contrast (Δ Hounsfield unit [HU]) and the Michelson visibility metric. Artifacts were quantified in terms of relative standard deviation and relative streak artifacts level (rSAL). Twelve radiation oncologists ranked each fiducial in terms of clinical usefulness.

      RESULTS: Contrast and artifacts increased with fiducial size. For CT imaging, maximum contrast (2722 HU) and artifacts (rSAL = 2.69) occurred for the largest-diameter (0.75 mm) platinum fiducial. Minimum contrast (551 HU) and reduced artifacts (rSAL = 0.65) were observed for the smallest-diameter (0.28 mm) gold fiducial. Carbon produced the least severe artifacts (rSAL = 0.29). The survey indicated that physicians preferred gold fiducials with a 0.35- to 0.43-mm diameter, 5- to 10-mm length, and coiled or cylindrical shape that balanced contrast and artifacts.

      CONCLUSIONS: We evaluated 11 different fiducials in terms of visibility and artifacts. The results of this study may assist radiation oncologists who seek to maximize contrast, minimize artifacts, or balance contrast versus artifacts by fiducial selection.

      PMID:31988039 | DOI:10.1016/j.prro.2020.01.007

      View details for PubMedID 31988039
  • 4D DSA reconstruction using tomosynthesis projections Proceedings of SPIE--the International Society for Optical Engineering
    Buehler M, Slagowski JM, Mistretta CA, Strother CM, Speidel MA
    2017 Feb;10132:101322C. doi: 10.1117/12.2255197. Epub 2017 Mar 9.
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      We investigate the use of tomosynthesis in 4D DSA to improve the accuracy of reconstructed vessel time-attenuation curves (TACs). It is hypothesized that a narrow-angle tomosynthesis dataset for each time point can be exploited to reduce artifacts caused by vessel overlap in individual projections. 4D DSA reconstructs time-resolved 3D angiographic volumes from a typical 3D DSA scan consisting of mask and iodine-enhanced C-arm rotations. Tomosynthesis projections are obtained either from a conventional C-arm rotation, or from an inverse geometry scanning-beam digital x-ray (SBDX) system. In the proposed method, rays of the tomosynthesis dataset which pass through multiple vessels can be ignored, allowing the non-overlapped rays to impart temporal information to the 4D DSA. The technique was tested in simulated scans of 2 mm diameter vessels separated by 2 to 5 cm, with TACs following either early or late enhancement. In standard 4D DSA, overlap artifacts were clearly present. Use of tomosynthesis projections in 4D DSA reduced TAC artifacts caused by vessel overlap, when a sufficient fraction of non-overlapped rays was available in each time frame. In cases where full overlap between vessels occurred, information could be recovered via a proposed image space interpolation technique. SBDX provides a tomosynthesis scan for each frame period in a rotational acquisition, whereas a standard C-arm geometry requires the grouping of multiple frames.

      PMID:28943698 | PMC:PMC5606252 | DOI:10.1117/12.2255197

      View details for PubMedID 28943698
  • Localization of cardiac volume and patient features in inverse geometry x-ray fluoroscopy Proceedings of SPIE--the International Society for Optical Engineering
    Speidel MA, Slagowski JM, Dunkerley AP, Wagner M, Funk T, Raval AN
    2017 Feb;10132:101325T. doi: 10.1117/12.2254400. Epub 2017 Mar 9.
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      The scanning-beam digital x-ray (SBDX) system is an inverse geometry x-ray fluoroscopy technology that performs real-time tomosynthesis at planes perpendicular to the source-detector axis. The live display is a composite image which portrays sharp features (e.g. coronary arteries) extracted from a 16 cm thick reconstruction volume. We present a method for automatically determining the position of the cardiac volume prior to acquisition of a coronary angiogram. In the algorithm, a single non-contrast frame is reconstructed over a 44 cm thickness using shift-and-add digital tomosynthesis. Gradient filtering is applied to each plane to emphasize features such as the cardiomediastinal contour, diaphragm, and lung texture, and then sharpness vs. plane position curves are generated. Three sharpness metrics were investigated: average gradient in the bright field, maximum gradient, and the number of normalized gradients exceeding 0.5. A model correlating the peak sharpness in a non-contrast frame and the midplane of the coronary arteries in a contrast-enhanced frame was established using 37 SBDX angiographic loops (64-136 kg human subjects, 0-30° cranial-caudal). The average gradient in the bright field (primarily lung) and the number of normalized gradients >0.5 each yielded peaks correlated to the coronary midplane. The rms deviation between the predicted and true midplane was 1.57 cm. For a 16 cm reconstruction volume and the 5.5-11.5 cm thick cardiac volumes in this study, midplane estimation errors of 2.25-5.25 cm were tolerable. Tomosynthesis-based localization of cardiac volume is feasible. This technique could be applied prior to coronary angiography, or to assist in isocentering the patient for rotational angiography.

      PMID:28943697 | PMC:PMC5606251 | DOI:10.1117/12.2254400

      View details for PubMedID 28943697
  • Automated 3D coronary sinus catheter detection using a scanning-beam digital x-ray system Proceedings of SPIE--the International Society for Optical Engineering
    Dunkerley AP, Slagowski JM, Bodart LE, Speidel MA
    2017 Feb;10132:101321N. doi: 10.1117/12.2254443. Epub 2017 Mar 9.
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      Scanning-beam digital x-ray (SBDX) is an inverse geometry x-ray fluoroscopy system capable of tomosynthesis-based 3D tracking of catheter electrodes concurrent with fluoroscopic display. To facilitate respiratory motion-compensated 3D catheter tracking, an automated coronary sinus (CS) catheter detection algorithm for SBDX was developed. The technique uses the 3D localization capability of SBDX and prior knowledge of the catheter shape. Candidate groups of points representing the CS catheter are obtained from a 3D shape-constrained search. A cost function is then minimized over the groups to select the most probable CS catheter candidate. The algorithm was implemented in MATLAB and tested offline using recorded image sequences of a chest phantom containing a CS catheter, ablation catheter, and fiducial clutter. Fiducial placement was varied to create challenging detection scenarios. Table panning and elevation was used to simulate motion. The CS catheter detection method had 98.1% true positive rate and 100% true negative rate in 2755 frames of imaging. Average processing time was 12.7 ms/frame on a PC with a 3.4 GHz CPU and 8 GB memory. Motion compensation based on 3D CS catheter tracking was demonstrated in a moving chest phantom with a fixed CS catheter and an ablation catheter pulled along a fixed trajectory. The RMS error in the tracked ablation catheter trajectory was 1.41 mm, versus 10.35 mm without motion compensation. A computationally efficient method of automated 3D CS catheter detection has been developed to assist with motion-compensated 3D catheter tracking and registration of 3D cardiac models to tracked catheters.

      PMID:28943696 | PMC:PMC5606249 | DOI:10.1117/12.2254443

      View details for PubMedID 28943696
  • Single-view geometric calibration for C-arm inverse geometry CT Journal of medical imaging (Bellingham, Wash.)
    Slagowski JM, Dunkerley AP, Hatt CR, Speidel MA
    2017 Jan;4(1):013506. doi: 10.1117/1.JMI.4.1.013506. Epub 2017 Mar 20.
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      Accurate and artifact-free reconstruction of tomographic images requires precise knowledge of the imaging system geometry. A projection matrix-based calibration method to enable C-arm inverse geometry CT (IGCT) is proposed. The method is evaluated for scanning-beam digital x-ray (SBDX), a C-arm mounted inverse geometry fluoroscopic technology. A helical configuration of fiducials is imaged at each gantry angle in a rotational acquisition. For each gantry angle, digital tomosynthesis is performed at multiple planes and a composite image analogous to a cone-beam projection is generated from the plane stack. The geometry of the C-arm, source array, and detector array is determined at each angle by constructing a parameterized three-dimensional-to-two-dimensional projection matrix that minimizes the sum-of-squared deviations between measured and projected fiducial coordinates. Simulations were used to evaluate calibration performance with translations and rotations of the source and detector. The relative root-mean-square error in a reconstruction of a numerical thorax phantom was 0.4% using the calibration method versus 7.7% without calibration. In phantom studies, reconstruction of SBDX projections using the proposed method eliminated artifacts present in noncalibrated reconstructions. The proposed IGCT calibration method reduces image artifacts when uncertainties exist in system geometry.

      PMID:28560241 | PMC:PMC5358550 | DOI:10.1117/1.JMI.4.1.013506

      View details for PubMedID 28560241
  • Dynamic electronic collimation method for 3-D catheter tracking on a scanning-beam digital x-ray system Journal of medical imaging (Bellingham, Wash.)
    Dunkerley AP, Slagowski JM, Funk T, Speidel MA
    2017 Apr;4(2):023501. doi: 10.1117/1.JMI.4.2.023501. Epub 2017 Apr 18.
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      Scanning-beam digital x-ray (SBDX) is an inverse geometry x-ray fluoroscopy system capable of tomosynthesis-based 3-D catheter tracking. This work proposes a method of dose-reduced 3-D catheter tracking using dynamic electronic collimation (DEC) of the SBDX scanning x-ray tube. This is achieved through the selective deactivation of focal spot positions not needed for the catheter tracking task. The technique was retrospectively evaluated with SBDX detector data recorded during a phantom study. DEC imaging of a catheter tip at isocenter required 340 active focal spots per frame versus 4473 spots in full field-of-view (FOV) mode. The dose-area product (DAP) and peak skin dose (PSD) for DEC versus full FOV scanning were calculated using an SBDX Monte Carlo simulation code. The average DAP was reduced to 7.8% of the full FOV value, consistent with the relative number of active focal spots (7.6%). For image sequences with a moving catheter, PSD was 33.6% to 34.8% of the full FOV value. The root-mean-squared-deviation between DEC-based 3-D tracking coordinates and full FOV 3-D tracking coordinates was less than 0.1 mm. The 3-D distance between the tracked tip and the sheath centerline averaged 0.75 mm. DEC is a feasible method for dose reduction during SBDX 3-D catheter tracking.

      PMID:28439521 | PMC:PMC5394503 | DOI:10.1117/1.JMI.4.2.023501

      View details for PubMedID 28439521
  • A geometric calibration method for inverse geometry computed tomography using P-matrices Proceedings of SPIE--the International Society for Optical Engineering
    Slagowski JM, Dunkerley AP, Hatt CR, Speidel MA
    2016 Feb 27;9783:978337. doi: 10.1117/12.2216565. Epub 2016 Mar 22.
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      Accurate and artifact free reconstruction of tomographic images requires precise knowledge of the imaging system geometry. This work proposes a novel projection matrix (P-matrix) based calibration method to enable C-arm inverse geometry CT (IGCT). The method is evaluated for scanning-beam digital x-ray (SBDX), a C-arm mounted inverse geometry fluoroscopic technology. A helical configuration of fiducials is imaged at each gantry angle in a rotational acquisition. For each gantry angle, digital tomosynthesis is performed at multiple planes and a composite image analogous to a cone-beam projection is generated from the plane stack. The geometry of the C-arm, source array, and detector array is determined at each angle by constructing a parameterized 3D-to-2D projection matrix that minimizes the sum-of-squared deviations between measured and projected fiducial coordinates. Simulations were used to evaluate calibration performance with translations and rotations of the source and detector. In a geometry with 1 mm translation of the central ray relative to the axis-of-rotation and 1 degree yaw of the detector and source arrays, the maximum error in the recovered translational parameters was 0.4 mm and maximum error in the rotation parameter was 0.02 degrees. The relative root-mean-square error in a reconstruction of a numerical thorax phantom was 0.4% using the calibration method, versus 7.7% without calibration. Changes in source-detector-distance were the most challenging to estimate. Reconstruction of experimental SBDX data using the proposed method eliminated double contour artifacts present in a non-calibrated reconstruction. The proposed IGCT geometric calibration method reduces image artifacts when uncertainties exist in system geometry.

      PMID:27375313 | PMC:PMC4925097 | DOI:10.1117/12.2216565

      View details for PubMedID 27375313
  • Depth-resolved registration of transesophageal echo to x-ray fluoroscopy using an inverse geometry fluoroscopy system Medical physics
    Hatt CR, Tomkowiak MT, Dunkerley AP, Slagowski JM, Funk T, Raval AN, Speidel MA
    2015 Dec;42(12):7022-33. doi: 10.1118/1.4935534.
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      PURPOSE: Image registration between standard x-ray fluoroscopy and transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) has recently been proposed. Scanning-beam digital x-ray (SBDX) is an inverse geometry fluoroscopy system designed for cardiac procedures. This study presents a method for 3D registration of SBDX and TEE images based on the tomosynthesis and 3D tracking capabilities of SBDX.

      METHODS: The registration algorithm utilizes the stack of tomosynthetic planes produced by the SBDX system to estimate the physical 3D coordinates of salient key-points on the TEE probe. The key-points are used to arrive at an initial estimate of the probe pose, which is then refined using a 2D/3D registration method adapted for inverse geometry fluoroscopy. A phantom study was conducted to evaluate probe pose estimation accuracy relative to the ground truth, as defined by a set of coregistered fiducial markers. This experiment was conducted with varying probe poses and levels of signal difference-to-noise ratio (SDNR). Additional phantom and in vivo studies were performed to evaluate the correspondence of catheter tip positions in TEE and x-ray images following registration of the two modalities.

      RESULTS: Target registration error (TRE) was used to characterize both pose estimation and registration accuracy. In the study of pose estimation accuracy, successful pose estimates (3D TRE < 5.0 mm) were obtained in 97% of cases when the SDNR was 5.9 or higher in seven out of eight poses. Under these conditions, 3D TRE was 2.32 ± 1.88 mm, and 2D (projection) TRE was 1.61 ± 1.36 mm. Probe localization error along the source-detector axis was 0.87 ± 1.31 mm. For the in vivo experiments, mean 3D TRE ranged from 2.6 to 4.6 mm and mean 2D TRE ranged from 1.1 to 1.6 mm. Anatomy extracted from the echo images appeared well aligned when projected onto the SBDX images.

      CONCLUSIONS: Full 6 DOF image registration between SBDX and TEE is feasible and accurate to within 5 mm. Future studies will focus on real-time implementation and application-specific analysis.

      PMID:26632057 | PMC:PMC4644157 | DOI:10.1118/1.4935534

      View details for PubMedID 26632057
  • Feasibility of CT-based 3D anatomic mapping with a scanning-beam digital x-ray (SBDX) system Proceedings of SPIE--the International Society for Optical Engineering
    Slagowski JM, Tomkowiak MT, Dunkerley AP, Speidel MA
    2015;9412:941209. doi: 10.1117/12.2082052.
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      This study investigates the feasibility of obtaining CT-derived 3D surfaces from data provided by the scanning-beam digital x-ray (SBDX) system. Simulated SBDX short-scan acquisitions of a Shepp-Logan and a thorax phantom containing a high contrast spherical volume were generated. 3D reconstructions were performed using a penalized weighted least squares method with total variation regularization (PWLS-TV), as well as a more efficient variant employing gridding of projection data to parallel rays (gPWLS-TV). Voxel noise, edge blurring, and surface accuracy were compared to gridded filtered back projection (gFBP). PWLS reconstruction of a noise-free reduced-size Shepp-Logan phantom had 1.4% rRMSE. In noisy gPWLS-TV reconstructions of a reduced-size thorax phantom, 99% of points on the segmented sphere perimeter were within 0.33, 0.47, and 0.70 mm of the ground truth, respectively, for fluences comparable to imaging through 18.0, 27.2, and 34.6 cm acrylic. Surface accuracies of gFBP and gPWLS-TV were similar at high fluences, while gPWLS-TV offered improvement at the lowest fluence. The gPWLS-TV voxel noise was reduced by 60% relative to gFBP, on average. High-contrast linespread functions measured 1.25 mm and 0.96 mm (FWHM) for gPWLS-TV and gFBP. In a simulation of gated and truncated projection data from a full-sized thorax, gPWLS-TV reconstruction yielded segmented surface points which were within 1.41 mm of ground truth. Results support the feasibility of 3D surface segmentation with SBDX. Further investigation of artifacts caused by data truncation and patient motion is warranted.

      PMID:26236072 | PMC:PMC4517620 | DOI:10.1117/12.2082052

      View details for PubMedID 26236072
  • Detector, collimator and real-time reconstructor for a new scanning-beam digital x-ray (SBDX) prototype Proceedings of SPIE--the International Society for Optical Engineering
    Speidel MA, Tomkowiak MT, Raval AN, Dunkerley AP, Slagowski JM, Kahn P, Ku J, Funk T
    2015;9412:94121W. doi: 10.1117/12.2081716.
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      Scanning-beam digital x-ray (SBDX) is an inverse geometry fluoroscopy system for low dose cardiac imaging. The use of a narrow scanned x-ray beam in SBDX reduces detected x-ray scatter and improves dose efficiency, however the tight beam collimation also limits the maximum achievable x-ray fluence. To increase the fluence available for imaging, we have constructed a new SBDX prototype with a wider x-ray beam, larger-area detector, and new real-time image reconstructor. Imaging is performed with a scanning source that generates 40,328 narrow overlapping projections from 71 × 71 focal spot positions for every 1/15 s scan period. A high speed 2-mm thick CdTe photon counting detector was constructed with 320×160 elements and 10.6 cm × 5.3 cm area (full readout every 1.28 μs), providing an 86% increase in area over the previous SBDX prototype. A matching multihole collimator was fabricated from layers of tungsten, brass, and lead, and a multi-GPU reconstructor was assembled to reconstruct the stream of captured detector images into full field-of-view images in real time. Thirty-two tomosynthetic planes spaced by 5 mm plus a multiplane composite image are produced for each scan frame. Noise equivalent quanta on the new SBDX prototype measured 63%-71% higher than the previous prototype. X-ray scatter fraction was 3.9-7.8% when imaging 23.3-32.6 cm acrylic phantoms, versus 2.3-4.2% with the previous prototype. Coronary angiographic imaging at 15 frame/s was successfully performed on the new SBDX prototype, with live display of either a multiplane composite or single plane image.

      PMID:26236071 | PMC:PMC4517476 | DOI:10.1117/12.2081716

      View details for PubMedID 26236071
  • Monte Carlo simulation of inverse geometry x-ray fluoroscopy using a modified MC-GPU framework Proceedings of SPIE--the International Society for Optical Engineering
    Dunkerley AP, Tomkowiak MT, Slagowski JM, McCabe BP, Funk T, Speidel MA
    2015 Feb 21;9412:94120S. doi: 10.1117/12.2081684.
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      Scanning-Beam Digital X-ray (SBDX) is a technology for low-dose fluoroscopy that employs inverse geometry x-ray beam scanning. To assist with rapid modeling of inverse geometry x-ray systems, we have developed a Monte Carlo (MC) simulation tool based on the MC-GPU framework. MC-GPU version 1.3 was modified to implement a 2D array of focal spot positions on a plane, with individually adjustable x-ray outputs, each producing a narrow x-ray beam directed toward a stationary photon-counting detector array. Geometric accuracy and blurring behavior in tomosynthesis reconstructions were evaluated from simulated images of a 3D arrangement of spheres. The artifact spread function from simulation agreed with experiment to within 1.6% (rRMSD). Detected x-ray scatter fraction was simulated for two SBDX detector geometries and compared to experiments. For the current SBDX prototype (10.6 cm wide by 5.3 cm tall detector), x-ray scatter fraction measured 2.8-6.4% (18.6-31.5 cm acrylic, 100 kV), versus 2.1-4.5% in MC simulation. Experimental trends in scatter versus detector size and phantom thickness were observed in simulation. For dose evaluation, an anthropomorphic phantom was imaged using regular and regional adaptive exposure (RAE) scanning. The reduction in kerma-area-product resulting from RAE scanning was 45% in radiochromic film measurements, versus 46% in simulation. The integral kerma calculated from TLD measurement points within the phantom was 57% lower when using RAE, versus 61% lower in simulation. This MC tool may be used to estimate tomographic blur, detected scatter, and dose distributions when developing inverse geometry x-ray systems.

      PMID:26113765 | PMC:PMC4476537 | DOI:10.1117/12.2081684

      View details for PubMedID 26113765

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